With ferries that stop at four wharfs — Fune no Eki Chuzenji, Shobugahama, Senjugahama and Tachiki Kannon — we take a boat tour to make sure we get to see the best views from the lake. To the north we also spot Mount Nantai, a volcano that is one of the famous Japanese mountains. Then after just a minute walk, we find ourselves in front of the former Italian Embassy Villa, a building designed by Czech American architect Antonin Raymond , who arrived in Japan in as an assistant of Frank Lloyd Wright when they came to design the renowned Imperial Hotel in Tokyo.
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Savor rich British cuisine and funky tunes Britain is not unique in its stance as a nation obsessed with food; its contribution to the culinary canon speaks of rich flavors and nods to the country's history. Such is the thinking behind P A weekend in Bangkok: Pick up your mitts and get ready for chaos Bangkok is a multifaceted and multicultural, but often misunderstood, city. All its stereotypes and cliches hold true to a degree, and whether you find it relaxing, traditional, modern or chaoti Comforting ambiance accompanies fine dining Modern Japanese food in the heart of Japan's most modern city.
That's what guests can expect when they walk through the doors of new Tokyo restaurant Hirakawacho Kanaya from Nov. The root system of these species is characterized by several orders of woody, perennial thick, long roots and one or more orders of small, fine non-woody roots Barnes et al. Fine non-woody roots usually have mutualistic associations with mycorrhiizal fungus Section 2.
Roots can develop both horizontally and vertically. On sandy sites, lateral roots of species such as pines and birches can extend as far as tens of meters, thereby occupying large volumes of soil Kozlowski, b; Barnes et al. Where soil layers are deep and drought is frequent, roots can penetrate to great depths to obtain water. In general, as soil moisture decreases, the proportion of net production allocated belowground increases Keyes and Grier, In the humid-savanna from Tanzania in the north to Zimbabwe in the south, Baikiaea plurijuga Zambezi teak has a canopy height of about 15 m and generally develops roots to about 10 m depth Calvert, Other species, such as Quercus, Eucalyptus, and Juglans can adapt to drought by developing roots deeper in soil.
However, if a water table is near the surface, root systems will be shallow and the trees become susceptible to windthrow Barnes et al. In temperate zones, the growth period of roots is generally longer than that of shoots. Roots start expansion growth earlier in the spring and end it later in the autumn in comparison with shoots Barnes et al. This may be due to the less extreme changes of temperature in the soil.
Crown and stem forms A tree's terminal bud controls the length and orientation of lateral branches. This physiological control is referred to as epinastic control Zimmermann and Brown, ; Oliver and Larson, and it differs in extent. In cases of strong epinastic control, the terminal shoot grows faster than the lateral branches below, and the branches develop systematically in such a way as to form a single, straight main stem and narrow conical crown. This is termed the excurrent form Figure Conifers commonly have excurrent form, as do some hardwood species. In cases of weak epinastic control, lateral branches grow nearly as fast or faster than the terminal shoot, which results in a rounded crown form and makes it difficult to distinguish between the main stem and branches in the crown.
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This is termed the decurrent form Figure Most hardwoods such as oaks, beeches, and maples have decurrent form. Tree shape is thought to be an adaptation to the environment. Trees with thin excurrent form columnar are commonly found in high latitudes, while trees with wide conical or rounded crowns are frequently found in lower latitudes.
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It has been hypothesized that the gradation in crown form with latitude is an adaptation for efficient absorption of light Shidei, 26 Chapter 2 Figure A tree of decuITent form Quercus crispula, mizunara. In high latitudes, increasing the side area of a crown may improve the efficiency of light absorption because of the lower angle of sunlight, but in lower latitudes, a crown that is fiat on top may be more efficient. The difference in the angle of sunlight may also cause a difference in the wavelength of radiation and thus tree form may reflect the light quality.
Crown shape can be modified by the presence of other trees through the effect of shade. Shade restricts the growth of branches, and this is particularly evident in the understorey. Sprugel et al. Thus, when shaded, the growth of branches decreases and lower branches die.
Thus, the development of crowns varies according to the intensity and uniformity of side shade. If shade is intense, such as in the lower stratum of a stand, epinastic control weakens and crown shape is greatly modified. As the ratio of growth in the lateral shoots to t h a t in the t e r m i n a l shoots increases, the crown becomes fiat on top, like an umbrella. When the light conditions improve, the terminal shoot may reassert epinastic control, if the tree has maintained a central leader Oliver and Larson, Epicormic branches In m a n y tree species, especially in broad-leaved trees, epicormic branches sprouts often arise along the trunk below the crown, and are conspicuous aider trees are released from side shade or following damage to the crown Wahlenberg, If the available growing space increases, branches and leaves whose growth was previously limited will increase their growth and epicormic shoots may begin to grow.
Epicormic branches degrade the wood, so for production of timber it is important to understand the mechanisms by which epicormic branches arise and to control them. Most epicormic branches arise from suppressed dormant buds which develop from lateral buds definite buds and keep active during much of the growing season, laying down new leaf and scale primodia and keeping pace with cambial growth Zimmermann and Brown, These buds are ready to develop as soon as conditions are suitable.
Epicormic branches rarely arise from adventitious buds Kozlowski, a; Zimmermann and Brown, ; Yokoi and Yamaguchi, Adventitious buds arise from callus tissue around wounds in the cambium, or from mature tissues in the endodermis or pericyclic region Kozlowski, a. Quercus crispula mizunara can produce epicormic branches, even in a closed stand, but most of them die within one or two years of emergence Yokoi and Yamaguchi, However, if the growing space is expanded by thinning, many of the epicormic branches which emerged just before or after the thinning develop and persist Wahlenberg, ; Tanaka et al.
Persistent epicormic buds also develop aider strong pruning Fujimori, The outer bark is the accumulation of dead phloem cells, and protects the inner living tissues from extreme temperature, fire, pests, diseases, and physical impacts. Outer bark is mechanically resistant to temperature, fire, and physical impacts and physically and sometimes chemically resistant to pests and diseases.
Species with thick bark such as Quercus and Pinus have strong resistance to fire and are often prevalent on sites where fire occurs frequently. Quantitative relationships between organs Monsi and Saeki developed a profile diagram which identified a relationship between the amount of photosynthetic organs leaves and the amount of non-photosynthetic organs in relation to relative illumination in each vertical s t r a t u m of a grass stand.
They called this diagram the production structure diagram. A similar production structure pattern was found in forest stands Tadaki and Shidei, a, b. In this model, a unit quantity of leaves is supported by a unit of xylem "pipe", and a quantitative relationship between leaves and stem could be defined. Grier and Waring further developed the pipe model theory by relating the amount of leaves to the cross-sectional area of sapwood.
This model implies t h a t the a m o u n t of w a t e r used in photosynthesis and by transpiration is regulated by the cross-sectional area of the sapwood. Further development of the pipe model Oohata and Shinozaki, ; Chiba et al. However, t h e s e relationships have not been examined thoroughly, as analysis of fine roots is difficult, and there is limited information on fine roots as a part of the forest production structure.
A forest community comprises trees, other plants, animals, insects, birds, fungi and microorganisms. Each component of the community acts 2. Plants which photosynthesize are called p r o d u c e r s or p r i m a r y p r o d u c e r s , h e r b i v o r o u s a n i m a l s and carnivorous animals are consumers; and fungi, which get energy by decomposing organic matter litter of plants and animals to inorganic matter, are decomposers. Trees are great producers, providing various kinds of food, such as leaves, xylem, fruits, honey, and sap to consumers.
Within a forest community there is a large quantity and variety of food and the forest structure provides many niches for various species. The range of niches available and the i n t e r a c t i o n between species will determine the level of species diversity, or overall biodiversity of the community Perry, ; Watanabe, The species diversity of a forest community is generally very high Roxburgh and Noble, The interdependence between species in a forest community extends beyond the d i f f e r e n t functions of species as p r o d u c e r s , c o n s u m e r s and decomposers.
For example, the reproduction of the plant species is usually dependent on insects, birds and animals as vectors of either pollen or fruit and seed, or to create suitable habitats for regeneration. The upper-layers modify the environment beneath, and the lower layers develop accordingly. The ability of an individual tree to reach the overstorey depends on its relationship with neighboring trees and plants; specifically, how fast the tree grows and occupies the growing space and how it tolerates being affected by the surrounding plants on the site.
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Once a tree with a long life-span occupies the overstorey, it exerts great influence on the understorey of the community by affecting the growing conditions in the understorey. Dominant trees affect the illumination, temperature and m o i s t u r e conditions, and modify the e n v i r o n m e n t t h r o u g h o t h e r mechanisms such as allelopathy. The vertical structure that develops eliminates some species, but provides a range of habitats and niches that other species, including plants, animals, and fungi, can occupy.
A forest community is referred to as a coexistent society Watanabe, The habitats and niches t h a t develop within a forest community continue to change over time. As a natural forest reaches the old-growth stage, declining trees, dead standing trees snags , and dead fallen trees logs develop as the large trees that were dominant in the overstorey senesce and die. These components provide an essential food resource and habitat for various organisms Franklin et al. Large declining trees and snags are particularly important for primary cavity excavators, such as woodpeckers and owls.
Large logs provide habitat for microbial and fungal species and for vascular plants, but are also an important habitat 30 Chapter 2 for many vertebrate and invertebrate species. Logs also play an important role, providing niches for mosses and ferns, and also sites for some regenerating tree species. The large woody debris that occurs in streams is also important for the aquatic ecosystem within old-growth forests. Such debris provides a variety of aquatic habitats, stabilize stream beds and stream banks, and control the movement of sediment and water through the stream system Franklin et al.
In forested areas, the stream ecosystems are closely related to the forest ecosystem, and in riparian zones, the stream and forest may be regarded as one ecosystem. The shading of streams by trees and the supply of fine and coarse organic debris to streams are essential for maintaining water quality and aquatic habitats.
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Thus, snags and logs fulfil a number of functions, including providing habitat, contributing to nutrient cycling, preventing soil erosion and acting as "bridges" between old-growth forests and young regrowth forests, particularly after a major disturbance Franklin et al. Communities whose physiognomies, structures, and compositions are similar are generally found on similar sites Numata, Based on this, communities can be systematically classified; for example, by the ZurichMontpellier method.
Fagus crenata buna -Sasa kurilensis chishimazasa and Abies firma momi -Illicium religiosum shikimi associations are examples of forest communities in Japan which have been classified by their physiognomy and composition.
Such a classification is helpful for the comparative discussion of communities and is commonly used. Autoecological theories have been developed to u n d e r s t a n d the structure and composition of a community e. These relationships can be analyzed in terms of individual species attributes which determine their relationship to the environment.
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Such attributes include reproductive or breeding systems, growth rate, shade tolerance, and life span. The flow of energy and minerals occurs through the food chain, the carbon cycle, the nutrient cycle and the water cycle. The food chain commences with photosynthesis by plants, which converts carbon dioxide and inorganinc matter into biomass primary production.
Consumers eat the plants and are in turn eaten by other consumers. This production of biomass based on the consumption of 2. Thus, organic matter and the energy accumulated in it are transferred between organisms. When plants and animals die, decomposers such as microorganisms and fungi convert the organic matter back into inorganic substances Whittaker, ; Kimmins, ; Perry, ; Barnes et al.
The water cycle is the exchange of water and energy between the atmosphere and the forest community.